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              翻譯政策匯總

              出國_回國_政策匯總_發布平臺

              施工過程中的質量控制和安全

              13. Quality Control and Safety During Construction

              13.在施工過程中的質量控制和安全


              13.1 Quality and Safety Concerns in Construction

              13.1在施工過程中的質量和安全問題


              Quality control and safety represent increasingly important concerns for project managers. Defects or failures in constructed facilities can result in very large costs. Even with minor defects, re-construction may be required andfacility operations impaired. Increased costs and delays are the result. In the worst case, failures may cause personal injuries or fatalities. Accidents during the construction process can similarly result in personal injuries and large costs. Indirect costs of insurance, inspection and regulation are increasing rapidly due to these increased direct costs. Good project managers try to ensure that the job is done right the first time and that no major accidents occur on the project.

              質量控制和安全越來越受到項目經理的關注。建造設施的缺陷或故障可能會帶來非常大的成本。即使是輕微的缺陷也可能會引起重新施工和使設施運行受損。成本增加和延期就是其結果。在最壞的情況下,故障可能導致人身傷害或死亡。在施工過程中的事故,同樣可以導致人身傷害和大的成本支出。由于這些直接成本的增加會帶來保險、檢驗和監管這些間接成本的迅速增加。優秀的項目經理盡力保證在初次施工時工程完成良好,且確保工程施工期間未出現重大事故。


              As with cost control, the most important decisions regarding the quality of a completed facility are made during the design and planning stages rather than during construction. It is during these preliminary stages that component configurations, material specifications and functional performance are decided. Quality control during construction consists largely of insuring conformance to these original design and planning decisions.

              至于成本控制,在設計和規劃階段,而不是在施工期間就完成了關于設施質量的最重要的決定。這些組件配置、材料規格和功能性能就是在初始階段確定的。施工過程中的質量控制主要是由保證這些原始設計的一致性和規劃決策組成的。


              While conformance to existing design decisions is the primary focus of quality control, there are exceptions to this rule. First, unforeseen circumstances, incorrect design decisions or changes desired by an owner in the facility function may require re-evaluation of design decisions during the course of construction. While these changes may be motivated by the concern for quality, they represent occasions for re-design with all the attendant objectives and constraints. As a second case, some designs rely upon informed and appropriate decision making during the construction process itself. For example, some tunneling methods make decisions about the amount of shoring required at different locations based upon observation of soil conditions during the tunneling process. Since such decisions are based on better information concerning actual site conditions, the facility design may be more cost effective as a result. Any special case of re-design during construction requires the various considerations discussed in Chapter 3.

              雖然符合現有的設計決策是質量控制的主要焦點,這一規則也有例外情況。首先,在建設過程中不可預見的情況下,業主所期望的關于設施功能的不正確的設計決策或變化,可能需要對設計決策進行重新評估。雖然這些變化可能是出于對質量的關注,它們卻代表著對于所有伴隨目標和約束的重新設計。其次,一些設計依靠在施工過程中本身獲知的和適當的決策。例如:在一些掘進方法中,不同位置需要的支柱的數量是根據掘進過程中對土壤條件的觀察確定的。由于這樣的決定是基于對現場的實際情況獲得更準確的信息,結果設施設計可能會更符合成本效益。在施工期間需要重新設計的任何特殊情況需考慮的各種因素將在第3章中進行進一步討論。


              With the attention to conformance as the measure of quality during the construction process, the specification of quality requirements in the design and contract documentation becomes extremely important. Quality requirements should be clear and verifiable, so that all parties in the project can understand the requirements for conformance. Much of the discussion in this chapter relates to the development and the implications of different quality requirements for construction as well as the issues associated with insuring conformance.

              隨著對施工過程中質量的一致性的關注,在設計和合同文件的質量要求的規范就顯得極為重要。質量要求應該是明確、可核實的,以便項目各方可以理解一致性的要求。本章主要討論了不同的質量要求對于施工的促進和影響,以及與保證一致性相關的問題。


              Safety during the construction project is also influenced in large part by decisions made during the planning and design process. Some designs or construction plans are inherently difficult and dangerous to implement, whereas other, comparable plans may considerably reduce the possibility of accidents. For example, clear separation of traffic from construction zones during roadway rehabilitation can greatly reduce the possibility of accidental collisions. Beyond these design decisions, safety largely depends upon education, vigilance and cooperation during the construction process. Workers should be constantly alert to the possibilities of accidents and avoid taken unnecessary risks.

              施工項目的安全在很大程度上也受到了在規劃和設計過程中所作決定的影響。一些設計或施工計劃的落實在本質上是困難和危險的,而其他類似的計劃可能會大大降低事故發生的可能性。例如,明確劃分施工區巷道修復期間的交通,可以大大降低意外碰撞的可能性。除了這些設計決策,安全在很大程度上取決于在施工過程中的教育、警惕性和合作。工人應該時刻保持警惕,避免事故和采取不必要的風險。


               


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