新石器時代（neolithic age）的磨制石器工業（ground stone tools industry）研究是一個比較新的課題。本文以桐林遺址發掘出土的大量石質品（lithics）為研究資料，通過行為鏈（behavior chain）和以在石器生命歷程中所扮演的角色為首要分類依據，構建了一個針對該石質品組合的完整的分類體系并設計了描述和繪圖的方法。
A research on ground stone tools industry of Neolithic Age is a relatively new subject. The paper, setting a large number of lithics excavated in Tonglin site as research data, builds a complete classification system specific to the combination of the lithics, and designs a means of description and drawing by means of behavior chain and of setting the role to play in the life course of stone tools as the primary classification basis.
The paper, specific to ground stone tools industry system of Longshan culture and Yueshi culture in Tonglin site, discusses from the three aspects i.e. technological system, consumption and circulation, and organization on the basis of classification system.
通過比較和分析，確定在龍山時期，桐林遺址石器工業的主流產品是各種石錛（stone adzes），也生產少量石斧（stone axes）、石鑿（stone chisels）等。岳石時期石器工業急劇衰減，但依然生產石斧、石刀（stone knives）等產品，其中石刀富有岳石文化的特點。
By comparison and analysis, it is determined in the Longshan culture period that the mainstream products in Tonglin site stone tools industry were all kinds of stone adzes, and a minority of stone axes and stone chisels etc were produced. In Yueshi culture period, stone tools industry declined sharply, but such products as stone axes and stone knives etc were still produced, of which stone knives are characterized by Yueshi culture.
It is indicated in the research of technological system that Tonglin site stone tools industry has a great selection to lithological character. More than 90％ of products in Longshan and Yueshi periods were made from various slates. Almost all of abraders are quartz sandstones. The two kinds of building stones are produced on Yugong Mountain at the less than 1km distance away from the site. It can be identified according to retention strategy of natural surface of semi-finished products and classification analysis of chippings that the raw materials in the Tonglin site are elaborately gathered slate rocks on Yugong Mountain rather than being exploited on the bed rocks.
在各類產品的打制坯和琢磨坯上可以看到加工的技術和順序，基本每類產品都經歷打制(flaking)、琢制（pecking）和磨制（grinding）的過程，少量石斧和石刀存在采用琢鉆和實心鉆(perforation by pecking and solid drilling)技術的鉆孔。從琢磨坯(pecking/grinding raw products)上觀察到的打制技術特點顯示：打制過程傾向于保留原材料的自然平面。這種現象在龍山文化石錛琢磨坯中非常明顯，并且分化出以A型、B型、C型石錛琢磨坯為代表的三種技術風格，這三種風格在石斧和石鑿上也有體現。岳石文化的加工技術和龍山基本一致。
Processed technology and sequence can be seen from all sorts of flaking and grinding raw products. Each kind of products generally undergoes the processes of flaking, pecking and grinding. A small quantity of stone axes and stone knives have drill holes to adopt the technology of perforation by pecking and solid drilling. Technical feature of flaking through the observation of pecking/grinding raw products displays: flaking process tends to natural surface retaining raw materials. Such phenomenon is extremely obvious in stone adzes pecking/grinding raw products of Longshan culture, and three technological styles taking Type A, Type B and Type C as representatives are differentiated. The three styles also embody in stone axes and stone chisels. Processing technology of Yueshan culture is basically the same as Longshan.
It is founded through the comparison of finished products and pecking/grinding raw products and analysis on lithological character that, foreign output with a comparable scale giving priority to stone adzes exists in the Tonglin site of Longshan culture period, but product input taking Type A stone axes as a representative is also available; output of stone axes and input of stone chisels may be available in Yueshi culture period.
Owing to Tonglin site being a naturally abandoned settlement and most of lithics being excavated from ash pits, value of spatial analysis is unavailable. It is believed through the analysis on relics in ash pits that stone tools industry spreads over the whole excavation area and may produce taking household as a unit. Low efficiency of raw materials and a lack of relevant evidences denote artificial control over adjacent resources producing places was not likely to exist in Longshan and Yueshi periods.
Known from the research case analysis on ground stone tools industry of the whole Neolithic Age, geographical conditions are still primary factors to affect stone tools industry. Characteristics of raw materials and practical applicability of products result in producing technological system taking preferential efficiency as the guide, and jointly influence the form of stone tools.
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Key Words: Tonglin site; Longshan culture; ground stone tools industry; technological system; raw materials